It is interesting to speculate as to the events taking place during the Big Bang. Cosmologists believe that the Big Bang flung energy in all directions at the speed of light (300,000,000 meters per second) and estimate that the temperature of the entire universe was 1000 trillion degrees Celsius at just a tiny fraction (in the range of one billion trillionth of a second) of a second after the explosion. While an explosion of a man-made bomb expands through air, the Big Bang did not expand through anything. That’s because there was no space to expand through at the beginning of time. Rather, physicists believe the Big Bang created and stretched space itself, expanding the universe.


Remnants of that heat are still visible today as the CMBR (Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation).  At some point in time, apart from heat, the Universe must have also been flooded with light. The question is what happened to that light? Light travels at

[latex]3\times10^5 [/latex] kms/sec, while matter travels at thousands or tens of thousands of kilometres per hour, if light existed, and since by (the existing ) definition a photon will travel for ever until it is absorbed by an electron in its path, shouldn’t this light have outpaced all matter and advanced several billions of light years over the border of the Universe.  To further complicate matters,  all of the matter in the Universe would represent just a tiny fraction of the light that filled the Universe, the chances of that light being absorbed by matter are therefore negligible. This seems to be something of a conundrum. Either the Big Bang took place with no light at all being created, which seems an extremely unlikely scenario given the amount of heat that was released in the first fraction of a second of the Big Bang, OR that that light still exists within the Universe.  To say that that light is part of the  Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) would not be entirely accurate because light from just three hundred and fifty million years after the Big Bang has been detected, which although red shifted is still discernibly light. One way in which light could continue to exist in the Universe is if it lost its energy, then in accordance with Heiseinberg’s Uncertainty Principle :

[latex]\Delta t \Delta E \geq \hbar [/latex]

The explanation is as follows: – Suppose  A characterizes the time scale

[latex]\Delta[/latex] for a significant change in the system this  can be done this by comparing the rate of change of the average value of A to the initial uncertainty in A:

CodeCogsEqn (2)




[latex] \Delta t [/latex] so-defined :-

[latex]\Delta t \Delta E \geq \frac{\hbar}{2}[/latex]


So, the shortest possible time scale that characterizes a significant change in the system is given by :

[latex]\Delta t \Delta E \sim \hbar[/latex]


On the other hand, if the (initial) state is stationary – that is, an energy eigenvector, then

[latex]\Delta E = 0 [/latex], which results in

[latex]\Delta t \rightarrow \infty[/latex] ,

which makes sense since the physical attributes of the state never  change. If we take the energy and momentum to be perfectly well-defined, symbolically

[latex] \Delta E = \Delta p = 0 [/latex], the position and time variables are completely undefined,

[latex]\Delta x = \Delta t = \infty[/latex],  and vice versa.

But they also allow intermediate situations in which the mentioned uncertainties are all non-zero and finite.

Thus it is possible that the whole of the Universe is immersed in a sea of   virtual photons  that possess extremely low energies although they still retain their original physical form. As they lose energy the ‘virtual photons’  are aligned at random. When however a real photon makes its appearance the virtual photons  along its path of propagation align themselves into a line whose ends rest on infinity and the energy of the real photon travels along this line of aligned ‘virtual photons’.  This is extremely close to the statement released by the CERN  Large Hadron Collider laboratory in 2015:

According to theory, there are countless electric dipoles created by virtual particles in any given volume of the quantum vacuum.
All of these electric dipoles are randomly oriented—like countless compass needles pointing every which way. But if the dipoles form in the presence of an existing electric field, they immediately align along the same direction as the field. 

Thus there is a very real possibility for the existence of a  virtual photon sea  in which the entire Universe is immersed. The next thought is ( a la Newton or Descartes ) to consider if this virtual photon sea were not part of a pre-ordained plan OR IF the existence of such a sea  of  virtual photons forms the very fabric of the Universe without which the Universe as we know it would not exist ?  The reason for this statement is as follows:- Without the  virtual photon sea (Aether would probably be more appropriate) as envisioned by Gestalt Aether Theory, there would be no constant speed of light, if there were no speed of light , there would be no time, everything would happen at the same time, there would be no space, all space would exist simultaneously and be simultaneously accessible, this in turn means that there would be no causality, cause and effect could take place in any order, lastly and perhaps most importantly there would be no light, since there would be no medium by which light could travel.  The physical structure of the photon together with its properties  has been detailed with diagrams at the following post:










Two thousand five hundred years ago, the great philosopher Aristotle postulated the existence of an aether. His reasoning went something like this. Imagine looking at a vase situated at some distance away, how does the vase impinge on ones senses, there has to be some medium to carry the information from the vase to the viewer, he named the medium the aether.  But is such a medium really necessary. The act of listening and talking is as natural to us as breathing, yet in space and on the moon, it is impossible to communicate vocally without some form of electronic device. Why doesn’t sound carry in space ? Sound doesn’t carry because in space,  the medium of the atmosphere does not exist to carry sound waves. In the same way Light also needs a medium.

Returning to the Gestalt Aether theory and theories on the  aether, it is possible to see that the aether described here (i.e., the virtual photon aether  has the following properties:-

1)      It is tasteless

2)      It is odourless

3)      It is colourless

4)      It possesses such low energies that matter is completely permeable to it, no atom requires or can accept such low orders of energy.

5)      The aether exists everywhere in the Universe.

6)      It is impossible to detect.

Looked at from the point of view, the Michelson-Morley experiment to disprove the existence of an aether was pointless and demonstrated nothing least of all the non-existence of the aether.

The Propagation of Light

viewfrom a window











Imagine that you are standing just inside an open window it is a beautiful day, outside in the garden the sun is shining and the colours are particularly vivid today. But as you stand there admiring the view what exactly are you seeing? Maybe, the green of the lawn catches your eye, but what is happening, and why does it happen? The answer is that as sun light falls on the grass, atoms within the grass accept and absorb certain frequencies and wavelengths while rejecting others, and re-emit those same frequencies and wavelengths. If one thinks about it, this process is definitely not due to the process of reflection, the photoelectric effect has proved that photons deliver energy in discrete amounts while waves deliver a continuous energy. Yet the absorption and emission of energy by the electrons of the atom is as natural a process as reflection, electrons are in a constant state of flux gaining and losing energy. This is another area that exists as a lacunae in present day physics with special reference to Quantum Mechanics. The emission and absorption of photons by electrons within an atom is described in a static manner, as a one off process taking no account of the frequency with which such inter-actions take place, Gestalt Aether Theory describes the process of emission and absorption dynamically and with reference to the frequency of such emissions and absorptions. If one proceeds further into this scenario one finds that in the case of the colour green the concerned electrons are absorbing and emitting photons at the rate of

[latex] 5 \times 10 ^{16} [/latex]photons per second. Thus what the eye is actually seeing is millions upon millions of electrons all oscillating at a rate of
[latex] 5\times 10 ^{16} [/latex]and emitting the same number of  photons per second. These lines or rays of photons are radiating in all directions, but the intensity of light that reaches one’s eyes is dependent on the number of these lines of connected photons that reach the retina. Thus if a greater number of lines of photons manages to reach the retina the more intense will the colour appear to be. However, things are not as simple as they sound.

inverse square law











Non-coherent light such as this radiates isotropically, which means that it spreads out in all directions and follows the inverse square law. Furthermore, every available bit of exposed area in that window will be subject to the same amount of radiated light. How does that happen? In an earlier article entitled ‘Gestalt  Aether Theory : the Aether’, a brief introduction to the Aether as viewed by Gestalt Aether Theory was made. In that article it was explained that the Universe is immersed in a vast sea of ‘virtual photons’ that have a very low energy but are otherwise identical in structure to real photons. The ‘virtual photons’ of the Aether are oriented at random until a real photon is emitted when the ‘virtual photons of the Aether, line up in the direction of propagation of the real photon forming themselves into a line whose ends rest on infinity. The energy of the real photon then travels along this line of virtual photons. However, and this is extremely important, as the energy of the line of real photons travels along the line of aligned ‘virtual photons’ it is dispersed not only forward but also laterally so that the energy from the line of real photons spread out in a cone shape from its point of origin. All of the area covered by this shape is filled with the energy of the original line of photons being emitted at the source. This is why light follows the inverse square law. As the light moves further from its origin the intensity of the light varies as the inverse of the square of the distance from the source. Energy from the original line of photons is being dissipated, even as it moves forward at the speed of light, through all the photons immediately surrounding it laterally, these in turn are passing on that energy to neighbouring photons. Note that this is in keeping with the Conservation Laws, because nothing is being created or destroyed. Energy already exists it is just being re-arranged and re-distributed. The above hypotheses raises two points, first that the longer that a source of light is radiating, the further that it will travel and secondly at a certain threshold of energy when individual photon energy cannot be sustained, the light just fades away and is dispersed across the virtual photon field !

This is directly opposed to the Quantum Mechanics view of light which views a photon like a bullet shot off into space that with no air resistance and very few atoms in its path, will travel forever until after untold distances and time it finally meets with a solid object and is absorbed.

It is tempting to view the propagation of light in the same way, unfortunately it does not meet with observed criteria. Light (ordinary light, not coherent light) radiating through space, spreads out in accordance with the inverse square law. The great question is why ? This is a question that Quantum Mechanics has never asked of itself. When there are no barriers in the path of propagation and very few atoms why then does light spread out in this way, following the inverse square law? The most obvious and plausible answer is that it is propagating through some medium into which its energy is absorbed and dispersed, and that medium is in all probability the Aether !

If there was no Aether there would simply be no possible reason for light to spread out in accordance with the inverse square law, as it does spread out. If there were no ‘virtual photons’ that composed the Aether, there would be no possible way in which each photon of the rapidly spreading photon front would be able to have the exact or identical energy as the originally emitted photon. This is the difference between the ‘Gestalt Aether Theory of photon propagation’ and the Quantum Mechanics view of photon propagation.

Photons do not travel forever from the time of emission to the time of absorption. Instead as they travel through the ‘virtual photon aether’ at the speed of light they share their energy among all the ‘virtual photons’ directly in contact with and adjacent to them resulting in a distribution that obeys the inverse square law. This is why, a source of light is present at every point from where it is visible and not only in a focused line or as a single diffracted splash of light.















To sum up, electromagnetic radiation relating to the visible spectrum and higher energies are emitted directly from the electron and form lines or rays of photons which in the case of non-coherent light spread out in accordance with the inverse square law. If the threshold energy is reached where individual photon energies cannot be sustained, the available energy disperses through the ‘virtual photon’ field and the ‘light’ vanishes.

Re-examining the  Quantum Mechanics  explanation for the propagation of light according to the inverse square law. The  Quantum Mechanics  explanation is  based on an existing theory , namely the Huygens-Fresnel principle . The problem here is that the Huygens-Fresnel principle on the propagation of light is inherently flawed.  The Huygen-Fresnel Principle states that Every point on a wave-front may be considered a source of secondary spherical wavelets which spread out in the forward direction at the speed of light. The new wave-front is the tangential surface to all of these secondary wavelets.

Huygens’ principle can be seen as a consequence of the isotropy of space—all directions in space are equal. Any disturbance created in a sufficiently small region of isotropic space (or in an isotropic medium) propagates from that region in all radial directions. The waves created by this disturbance, in turn, create disturbances in other regions, and so on. The superposition of all the waves results in the observed pattern of wave propagation.

Isotropy of space is fundamental to quantum electrodynamics (QED) where the wave function of any object propagates along all available unobstructed paths. When integrated along all possible paths, with a phase factor proportional to the path length, the interference of the wave-functions correctly predicts observable phenomena. Every point on the wave front acts as the source of secondary wavelets that spread out in the forward direction with the same speed as the wave. The new wave front is found by constructing the surface tangent to the secondary wavelets.

Consider what this means IF the Huygen’s Fresnel Principle ( and  Quantum Mechanics also) theory on the propagation of light according to the inverse square law  is seen as a consequence of the isotropy of space, it is  impossible that light would propagate in only the forward direction as stated by the Huygen’s-Fresnel principle. ALSO, if isotropy of space is responsible for light propagating according to the inverse square law, there would be NO difference between the manner in which coherent light and incoherent light propagate. This is manifestly not true coherent light propagates differently from incoherent light.