This is a continuation of my earlier post ’Gestalt Aether Theory: Propagation of Light’

So far we have dealt with photons of the visible spectrum and higher order of energies, we now come to the question of electromagnetic at radio frequencies and lower.

Ever since scientists have known about electrons, electrons have been considered as being the charge carriers in an electric current. Gestalt Aether Theory disputes this statement and states that the charge carriers in an electric current are not electrons but photons. This is a bold statement to make!

A key concept in the Gestalt Aether theory of light is that of limiting the size of the longest wave-length photon that an electron can emit. Present theories hold that low energy electromagnetic radiation like radio waves are emitted by reason of the jiggling or oscillation of atoms and ions within an electrical conductor (lattice vibrations), while high energy electromagnetic radiation such as light and x-rays are directly emitted by electrons due to stimulation. The problem with this theory is that some radio waves, like those due to a 60 Hz ac current are more than 5 km in length. The question is how can the oscillation of an electron with a size of $latex 10^{-13}m $ (classical radius of electron) result in a wave which is $latex 5 . 10^{6} m $ in length? Try and work out the mathematics but it doesn’t look too promising. Further this huge $latex 5 . 10^{6} m $ wave length possesses all the properties of a normal photon, it travels at the speed of light, retains its energy etc., how can two such identical phenomena (i.e. high energy light waves and low energy radio waves) be attributed to two different causative factors? High energy photons being directly emitted by excited electrons while low energy photons (like radio waves) are attributed to the oscillation of atoms in the conductor. Surely this is bad science? The Gestalt Aether theory states that there is a limit to the longest wave-length photon that an electron can emit and that the size of this wave-length is about $latex 1.2 . 10^{-6}m $ which is considerably below the longest wave-length of visible light. Since electrons have been seen to emit and absorb photons with a wave-length of $latex 7 . 10^{-7} m $ this seems to be an acceptable conclusion. So how do large wave lengths form ? The Gestalt Aether theory answer to this is that all electromagnetic waves greater than $latex 1.2 . 10^{-6} m $ in wave length are composite waves , i.e. they are made up of joined or connected photons. This joining up of photons is made possible because of their solenoidal structure and can take place in two orientations ; in series :

or in parallel.:

The largest photon wave length which an electron can emit is also, according to the Gestalt Aether theory, the photon which carries electrical energy and hence has been named the “conduction “ photon. Light when it travels through substances such as glass , crystal or water uses a method called “photon conduction” to pass through the substance, photons being rapidly absorbed and emitted during its passage. Yet when it comes to the conduction of electrical energy it is believed that it is electrons that serve to conduct electrical energy. Thus although every other form of energy related to electrons such as radiation and heat is mediated by photons , an exception is at present made in the case of electricity. Photons according to quantum mechanics cannot exist within a conductor due to the provisions of the Laws of the conservation of momentum. Yet there are many facts which mitigate against this theory , electrons in a conductor have a drift velocity of $latex 10^{-3}cms /sec $ one hundredth of a millimeter per second, while the current is seen to be established at approx.. the speed of light or $latex 3 . 10^{10}cms/secs. $ ( three billion millimeters a second), this is a huge discrepancy , how is it possible to rationalize this inconsistency ? Gestalt Aether theory holds that electric current flows in an electrical conductor when free electrons in the conductor emit and absorb ‘conduction’ photons. Quantum mechanics tells us that it is not possible for a free electron to absorb or emit electrons due to the fact that the forces of recoil involved would violate the conservation of energy. If a free electron could absorb a photon, then, according to conservation of energy and momentum:

$latex \hbar \omega +mc^2 = \sqrt{p^2c^2 + m^2c^4}$ (Eq1)

$latex \hbar k = p $ (Eq2)

where

$latex \omega $ and *k* are the frequency and wave number of the photon, respectively, *m* the electron’s rest mass, *p* the momentum of the electron after absorbing the photon. Eq2 leads to: $latex p^2=\hbar^2 k^2 = \hbar^2 \frac{\omega^2}{c^2}$ (Eq3)

Insert Eq3 into Eq2, and square of the left side is:

$latex \hbar^2\omega^2+m^2c^4$

when square of the right side is $latex \hbar^2\omega^2+m^2c^4$

So, if Eq1 holds, $latex \hbar \omega=0$.

There is no photon carrying vanishing energy. Hence, absorbing of a photon by a free electron is forbidden.

Emitting of a photon is Forbidden Suppose the initial (before photon emitting) and final (after photon emitting) 4-momentum of the electron are separately :

$latex p_\mu$, $latex p_\mu^{‘} $: $latex p_\mu=(0,0,0,imc), $

$latex p_\mu^{‘} = \left

According to conservation of energy and momentum:

$latex p_\mu=q_\mu+p_\mu^{‘}$ (Eq5)

$latex \left(p_\mu – p_\mu^{‘}\right)^{2} = q_\mu^{2}$ (Eq6)

where

$latex q_\mu $

refers to the 4-momentum of the photon. From Eq5 and Eq6, we have.

Recall that

$latex p_\mu p_\mu^{‘} = -\frac{mc^2}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}} $ (Eq8)

Insert Eq8 into Eq7, we have

$latex p_\mu p_\mu^{‘} = -m^2 c^2 \left[ 1-\frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v^2}{c^2}}} \right] $ (Eq9)

Yet

$latex q_\mu^2=0$, so, $latex p_\mu=p_\mu^{‘}$,

to ensure Eq5 and Eq6 hold. Thus the state of motion of the electron is not disturbed, with no momentum transferred to the photon. Hence, emitting of a photon by the free electron is forbidden.

Thus a simple inability to cope with conservation of momentum laws forbids free electrons from either absorbing or emitting electrons. Nevertheless the HUP, Heisenberg’s Exclusion Principle dealing with energy and time states that if an interaction takes place fast enough it can elude the conservation laws !

$latex \Delta E \Delta t \geq \hbar$.

What does this mean ? It means simply that if a free electron travelling in a conductor emits a photon and then is able to re-absorb that photon fast enough, then it has avoided the conservation of momentum laws. In other words the energy multiplied by the time of the emission absorption process should be greater than $latex \frac { \hbar}{2}$ Which gives an approximate time of $latex 10^{-15} secs $ for the emission and absorption process. A simple calculation shows that this time period provides no problems for electrons in a wire carrying a current. So the Gestalt Aether theory states that electricity is conducted not by electrons but by photons.

What happens to these photons, they have been emitted by the electron and have to be reabsorbed as soon as possible so they exit the conductor and the ‘virtual’ photons of the ‘virtual’ photon Aether immediately line up in the direction of their propagation with the result that what we know as electromagnetic fields of force appear around the conductor, that is photons are being emitted and then immediately being re-absorbed. Why ? Because these photons can only be reabsorbed by electrons needing a similar quantum energy to that which they carry. The nearest source of electrons is within the conductor so the photons re-enter the conductor forming what we know of as lines of force. Each line of force has the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon. Now what happens if the flow of the current suddenly stops the photons that are outside the conductor realign themselves in parallel and leave the conductor at the speed of light, in this case each line of force shares the energy of a single ‘conduction’ photon. This orientation of the photons explains the energy difference between near and far fields. conductor forming what we know of as lines of force. Each line of force has the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon. These photons are connected in series.

This orientation of the photons ( in series and in parallel) explains the energy difference between near and far fields. The ** far fields** are **radio waves. **According to Gestalt Aether Theory, the fundamental **charge carrier** involved in the transmission of electricity **is not** as has erroneously believed for the past three hundred years the **electron**, but the **photon**. The Gestalt Aether Theory hypotheses is that photons are emitted and immediately re-absorbed by free electrons within the conductor (brouillion zone) in keeping with Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle $latex \Delta e \Delta t \geq\hbar $ and are therefore are able to avoid the Laws of conservation which otherwise would prevent such emission and absorption of photons by free electrons present in the conductor:

One of the outcomes of this extremely rapid emission and absorption of photons by free electrons within the conductor are the lines of force that appear around any current carrying conductor. These lines of force are the manifestation of the ‘virtual’ photon Aether which line themselves up in the line of propagation of the real photon forming the complicated patterns that surround a conductor carrying electricity.. Thus for those who constantly complain, where is this ‘aether’ that you are talking about ? The answer is that it is literally all around you, surrounding the power line which comes to the house, in the electricity that runs the TV and the computer in and out of the numerous light fittings, in and around the compressor in the fridge and so on. Look at the following pictures:

As is demonstrated by the pictures shown above it can be seen that seemingly an almost infinite number of lines of force emerge from and re-enter the electrical conductor. These lines of force is where the electrical energy is stored. As has been stated the drift velocity of electrons under the influence of an electrical difference of potential is extremely slow: Drift velocity is expressed in the following equations:

j = $latex {pv}_{avg} $

$latex V_{avg} = \mu E $

where *J *is the current density, $latex \rho $ is charge density (in units C/m3), and $latex v_{avg} $ is the drift velocity, and where is the electron mobility (in units m2/V•s) and *T* is the electric field (in units V/m) Assume a current *I* = 3 amperes, and a wire of 1 mm diameter (radius = 0.0005 m). This wire has a cross sectional area of $latex 7.85 .10^{-8} m^2 $ . The charge of 1 electron is $latex q = 1.6 . 10 ^{-19} $ Coulombs. The drift velocity therefore can be calculated: $latex v = \frac {I}{nAq} $ $latex \frac {3}{\left(8.5.{10}^{28}\right )\left(7.185.{10}^{-7}\right)\left(-1.6.{10}^{-19}\right)} $ v = -0.00028 m

Therefore in this wire the electrons are flowing at the rate of $latex 2.9.10^{-5}m/s $, or very nearly −1.0 m/hour. The photons emitted by free electrons under such conditions are ‘relatively’ low energy photons and have been named ‘conduction’ photons as opposed to optical photons which are normally emitted and absorbed by bound electrons in the atom and generally have larger energies. The following are the properties of a conduction photon:

The Quantum charge of the conduction photon $latex C_e^p = 1.6.10^{-19}C$

The wavelength of the conduction photon $latex C_\lambda^p = 1.2.10^{-6} m $

The frequency of the conduction photon Hz. $latex C_\omega^p = 2.4.10^{14} Hz $

Similarly the frequency $latex \omega $ the wave-length $latex\lambda $ and the energy *e* of the composite wavelength may be calculate either using $latex h\omega $ planck’s constant x frequency or by dividing of the quantum energy of the conduction photon by the composite wavelength. Now it is possible to see how the energy of the **far field **and the **near field** are produced. In the near field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in series and each line of force holds the energy of one ‘conduction’ photon, so that in effect each line of force has an energy of $latex 1.6.10^{-19} C $ This fits in with well with observed data and conforms with the flow of an electric current. Note that here the drift velocity of the electrons does not matter the ‘conduction’ photons each deliver $latex 1.6.10^{-19} C $ . As far as the far field goes, here also the results are in line with observed data. In the far field the ‘conduction’ photons are connected in parallel thus each line of force in the far field contains the energy of one conduction photon divided by the composite wave length. For example, given that we have a 0.75 m wave length in the far field then its energy will equal :

$latex \frac{C_e^p}{C_{o\lambda}} = C_{oe} $ Here $latex C_{oe} = \frac{C_e^p}{C_{o\lambda}} = \frac{0.75}{1.2.10^{-6}}= 6.2.10^{5}$ Therefore $latex e = \frac{1.6.10^{-19}}{6.2.10^{5}}= 2.56.10^{-25} $

The same result can be reached : $latex e = 3.99.{10}^{9}. h = 2.56.{10}^{-25}$

e =$latex \frac{1.6.10^{-19}}{6.2.10^{5}}$

= $latex 2.56.10^{-25}$

We can also see that if a voltage of one 1 volt is applied to the conductor and a current of 1 coulomb is made to flow then total current $latex I = 6.241509324.10^{18} $ conduction photons or $latex 1.6.10^{-19} . 6.241509324.10^{18} = 0.999 Amp $ . Delivered at the speed of light C ! Some readers of this site might be wondering why, since I had already dealt with the ‘drift’ velocity of electrons in a conductor under the influence of a difference of potential, with supporting mathematical equations, why I am returning to the subject. The answer is that there are more aspects of ‘drift velocity’ to be discussed. The picture that is given for the transmission of electricity in most Institutions goes something like this: ‘ Imagine a tube filled with ping pong balls (the ping pong balls represent electrons) if sufficient ping pong balls are present when one is put in at this end another pops out of the other end.’ It is like a domino effect:

This is the picture of the transmission of electricity that has been passed on for at least as long as electricity has been known. In actual fact electrons within the atom itself are separated by huge distances and the distance between one electron and another in the interstitial spaces of the conductor is almost too huge to imagine. I would be like trying to hit one billiard ball with another from a distance of 250,000 Kms, which says it all. The present explanation for the conduction of electricity in a conductor is hardly satisfying. Once the direct physical contact to contact of electrons is eliminated there are few alternatives left. The alternatives that are left are electric and magnetic fields, could the electricity be passed along by these fields ? This would be acceptable if not for the fact that it is the electron that is the fundamental charge carrier, what part would it have to play in this scenario? How would electrical energy travel in these fields ? If a fluctuating electric and magnetic field alone is enough to convey electrical energy without any electrons at all present, what part do electrons play in all this, how do electrons, if it is electrons that have imparted the initial energy to the field, in turn receive energy from the field. These are difficult questions to answer even leaving out the fact that it completely ignores the particle aspect of the photon, since a field is exclusively wave-like at least in this particular instance. Most important is the fact that it is not electric and magnetic fields that are seen to mediate between electrons but photons. It is photons that are the mediators of energy between electrons.

Gestalt Aether Theory submits that it is not electrons that are the fundamental charge carriers but photons. The observable evidence in support of this conclusion is considerable and answers all questions without leaving any unanswered lacunae whatsoever. This is in sharp contrast to any other theory which all leave huge unsatisfactory gaps in their theories of electrical conduction. Quantum Mechanics for instance or QED to be more exact, has no reasonable explanation for electromagnetic fields and certainly cannot differentiate these fields on the basis of frequency. It is in the renormalistaion process that infinities amounting to $latex 10^{11} $are routinely brought back to zero ! Gestalt Aether Theory can accurately predict the near field energies for any given flow of current as well as the energies of the far field for that same current. Returning to the question of the drift velocity of electrons under the influence of a difference of potential, this has been observed to be very slow on the order of a thousandth of a centimeter a second. As explained above, the main argument against free electrons in an electric conductor are the conservation of momentum laws, if a bound electron emits an electron the forces of recoil can be absorbed by the atom, but if a free electron emits an electron it has nowhere to absorb the recoil. It has been explained that this circumstance has been overcome by a free electron emitting an electron and instantaneously absorbing another so that the conservation laws are not violated according to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle. The electrons are under the influence of a difference of potential which gradually forces them towards the positive end of the conductor, thus although in a very large percentage of instances, the forces of recoil are cancelled out by the opposing forces of emission and absorption, there is still enough discrepancy to account for the ‘drift velocity’. This applies to electrons moving under the influence of a direct current. What happens to electrons when they are in an alternating current. The answer when viewed from any other viewpoint but that of the photon as charge carrier put forward by Gestalt Aether Theory, is surprising. The electrons stop moving, there is no movement at all it is as if the electrons are frozen in place! From the point of view of Gestalt Aether Theory this is perfectly logical because once the influence of the difference of potential going in one direction only has been neutralized, the emission and absorption of photons cancels out all forces of recoil and the electrons stay in one place. Compare the explanation given above to the answer given by present day physics. The Quantum Mechanics explanation for the flow of current in a conductor is as follows:

For Direct Current: It is well established that a moving electric charge gives rise to electromagnetic waves which are alternating magnetic and electric fields, thus when a difference of potential is established across the ends of the conductor and a direct current is established, even though the electrons are moving very slowly due to the drift velocity ( about $latex 10^{-3} cms/sec $ they *are *moving and this gives rise to an electromagnetic field which nudges the next electron in line along and so on. Since electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of light the electric current is established very fast. Thus as can be seen the Quantum Mechanics explanation for current is little better than the ping pong ball explanation given earlier. But the picture gets worse ! Look at the explanation for the flow of current in a conductor carrying an Alternating current ! Here since it has been verified that there is no drift movement at all of electrons in a conductor carrying an Alternating current, in fact the electrons are almost *frozen *in place, it is assumed that the electrons are oscillating in place and that it is this oscillation of the electrons which gives rise to an electromagnetic field and the transmission of electric current and so on. Very bad science if you think about it, two explanations for a single phenomenon !