Schappeller, Searl and Gravity
The following excerpt is from the book ‘AntiGravity : The Dream Made Reality’, the Story of John R.R. Searl,
by John A. Thomas, Jr.
This was article originally found at https://merlib.org/mirror/keelynet/gravity/searle3
Glossary of Terms used in this file:
- Space or “Space Fabric” – in this context means the 3 dimensional medium which SUPPORTS matter, force fields and radiant energy. It does NOT mean specifically interplanetary space, but INCLUDES it.
- Ether or “Aether” – another name for space, but implies a different concept in that space is regarded as the absence of matter, and ether is regarded as the existence of a space medium having specific properties…………………….ref : Lodge Theory.
- Inertial Mass – comparison of amounts of matter by examination of the inertial properties using the equation: P = m a where P = force required to accelerate inertial mass (m) at an acceleration of value a.
- Gravitational Mass – comparison of amount of matter. G, the force on it, is a gravitational field.
- P = Emg.
- P = force on mass mg in a field of strength E E is given by the Newtonian formula
- E = GM/d^ where G is universal gravitational constant and d^ is distance from planetary body mass M (^ = squared)
- Primary Magnetism – a large scale movement of ether.
- Glowing Magnetism, Glowing Core – a center where ether is converted from an undisturbed state to PERTURBED states giving rise to various manifestations of primary magnetism, e.g. gravity, magnetism, electrostatic fields, matter and radiant energy. (see NEUTRAL1 on KeelyNet)
- E.M.F. – electro-motive force, potential difference produced by separation of charge.
- Inertia – reluctance of matter to change its state of motion.
- Levity – in opposition TO gravity.
- Microcellular – made up of very SMALL cells.
- Macrocellular – made up of quite LARGE cells.
- Vortex – circulation in a fluid.
- Microvortex – small area of circulation.
- Quasar – very small but highly dense star with a fantastically high gravity, producing a large “red shift” in the spectrum of the star.
BACKGROUND THEORY The Searl Effect type of craft is a fact. The following theory is offered as to its means of operation. A theory to cover force fields of all types should attribute a fundamental cause to interaction of matter at a distance whether the interaction be gravitational, magnetic, nucleonic or electrostatic. Present theories include interchange of virtual photons or mesons, and multidimensional distortion of the space-time continuum. Whatever the argument, it will depend basically on the concept of a medium to support the wave motion, flux or distortion. The medium is space and the properties of it have never been SERIOUSLY investigated, neither practically nor theoretically, that is excepting the possibility that it has been overlooked. The accepted idea is that space is empty, a place with the ABSENCE of matter, DEVOID of tangibility. This is taught to our children as being a PRIMARY contention, and is in fact, wrong and negative thinking. We do not understand it so we turn our backs to it. Physical investigation of “space” is impossible, for the experimental technique demands use of apparatus which is made OF MATTER which in turn OCCUPIES space. One of the fundamentals of the experimental method is that the materials and principles under investigation CANNOT BE INCLUDED in the apparatus. This was but ONE FAILURE of the Michelson-Morley experiment. In its original form, this experiment was set up to test for ether drag due to the passage of the earth THROUGH the medium, but has been assumed to have been an experiment to actually test for the existence OF an ether. Failure of the experiment to give a positive result made it possible to interpret the negative result as favoring the non-existence of the ether as Oliver Lodge imagined it. The then-developing materialist philosophies took the opportunity to discredit the pseudo-scientific religious cult of spiritualism, in which the idea of an “etheric existence” was an important part of the philosophy. As it happened, the two etherics need not have had any connection except in the choice of words. The ether theory was dropped and the spiritualist cult subdued. Today, the Michelson-Morley experiment has been modified to show Doppler interference between coherent wave trains. One wave travels against, and the other WITH the direction of rotation of THE WHOLE APPARATUS. Results are in favor of the theory of relativity, but can also be interpreted in favor of “ether drag” within the stationary medium about the apparatus. A vacuum TRANSMITS radiation AND force fields, so to refer to it as being empty is INACCURATE. Real emptiness MUST include in its definition reference to its INABILITY to PROPAGATE energy. Such may be better termed “hyperspace”. As to whether hyperspace has the dimensions of space and time OR NOT is a topic for more thought. It is easier to attribute the dimensions to THE SPACE FABRIC IN hyperspace, THE ETHER. The idea of an energy continuum throughout space occurred to Dirac. On the basis of his theory, matter particles emerge from a ground state and become PHYSICALLY OBSERVABLE. Material ABOVE the ground state has a HIGHER ENERGY than the ground state and so REQUIRES ENERGY to be dislodged. The energy corresponds to the total energy of the particle, its mass energy (mc^) and other potential or kinetic energies. The theory, then, supposes that matter is OF the substance of the ground state, that is, “empty space”. In comparison, the Lodge theory supposes that the ether has a MAXIMUM of energy, and matter particles are a LOWER ENERGY precipitate FROM the ether. The same idea, but a difference of SIGN. However, this implies that the appearance of matter is A PREFERRED state, and that the creative process is a NATURALLY OCCURRING condition. Heisenberg, in formulating the “unified field theory”, assumed a space fabric of some nature. To quote from the Lindau Conference, 28th June 1962. “The discovery shows that the different elementary particles are NOT Nature’s building bricks, completely independent of each other, but MANY DIFFERENT FORMS of a FUNDAMENTAL SUBSTANCE manifest AS energy”. From then on, the “fundamental substance” is forgotten. “The multiplicity of these forms corresponds to the multiplicity of the mathematical symmetries of the basic equation”. Sir Oliver Lodge imagined the space fabric as having a microcellular structure, each cell being a vortex whose size was of the order of the size of the fundamental particles, or even SMALLER. The medium was FRICTIONLESS and the rotational velocity of the vortices related to the velocity of light. The intrinsic energy of the ether was in the motion in the vortices. This attributed an ultimate energy source TO SPACE ITSELF. Lodge also imagined that the ether had an ENORMOUS INERTIA and DENSITY. The inertia in mass WAS DUE TO THE ETHER IN IT, and solidarity of matter was VIRTUAL. A similar idea occurred to Karl Schappeller of Castle Aurolzmunster in Inviertel, Austria (died 1947). According to his philosophy, a change in space fabric (static potential) gave rise to so-called primary magnetism which may be interpreted as a type of AUTO-GRAVITATION. This primary magnetism caused a gathering of the surrounding space fabric and FROM IT issued more fundamental energy as an INTENSIFICATION of the primary magnetism. At a certain stage, the system reached an EQUILIBRIUM GATHERING space fabric, and FROM IT PRECIPITATED ENERGY. When the energy DENSITY reached a required level, matter would be PRODUCED. The system would take up a spherical form in the “natural” state and become what Schappeller called “glowing magnetism”. Glowing magnetism, he claimed, constituted the core of all planets and suns, the gravitational core of which was DUE to the glowing magnetism AT ITS CORE. How this theory fits the universal law of gravitation is at first difficult to see. We must remember that the universal law of gravitation is based on Kepler’s Laws, which were derived from astronomical observations of the planets. The masses of these bodies can only be determined from their gravitational interaction, NOT from their inertial properties. Hence for cosmic bodies the term m in the derived formula E = Gm/d^ is not necessarily related to the inertial mass of these bodies, but the GRAVITY of them. Gravity cannot be proved to be due to the mass content of these bodies by astronomical observation ONLY. Further, no convincing experiments have been conducted to PROVE that STATIC INERT MATTER has ANY gravitational field. Experiments, like that of Airies, which use the earth as a mass, are questionable on the basis that the gravity MAY BE DUE to the earth’s field ALONE. Boyes’ and Cavendish’ experiments showed ONLY that masses IN RELATIVE MOTION have a force between them, since in both experiments the masses were in torsional vibration suspended by a beam. The force could be attributed to an inductive or relativistic effect between the charged particles constituting the masses. Hoyle, from his work on quasars, has deduced that vast cosmic masses could undergo gravitational collapse leading to a singularity and that the CONVERSE was POSSIBLE. A singularity COULD EXPLODE into a CREATION FIELD. (shades of Star Trek II’s Genesis Wave!) This is much the same idea as that of Schappeller, though on the basis of his theory the creation process is MUCH LESS DRAMATIC. Hoyle’s creation field ARISES FROM NOTHING, whereas that of Schappeller, glowing magnetism, arises from the SPACE FABRIC. Which is the more PLAUSIBLE? Physical evidence for the existence of glowing magnetism may be available. The source of energy in comets has long been a problem. How a comet can GIVE OFF so much radiant energy and continually dissipate its matter in the tail, yet despite its apparent lack of substance survives to return after many years, is difficult to explain in terms of conventional science. The usual explanation is, of course, the energy is RE-RADIATED solar energy. Who has PROVED it? The existence of “ball lightning” has now been accepted but as yet eluded explanation, except that attempts have been made without the usual mathematical substantiation. The peculiar anti-gravitational effect, the inductive effects and the fantastic energy of ball lightning FITS NEATLY in with Schappeller’s theory of glowing magnetism. The glowing ball of POLARIZED SPACE FABRIC is precipitated by enormous STATIC fields or high current pulses in thunder storms. At a center of glowing magnetism, the space fabric is modified and the energy condensate comes off as magnetic fields and radiation. The consumed fabric is replaced by an INFLUX of the SURROUNDING SPACE. Matter particles in the surrounding space would experience a force TOWARDS the CENTER. This would be a gravitational field. Lodge imagined that the ether would be near INCOMPRESSIBLE with a very high ELASTICITY. A small inhomogeneity would give rise to a relatively big effect. Also the ether flux would be at the velocity of light and BUNCHED in much the same way as magnetic fields bunch at high intensity. Thus the maximum velocity of a matter particle would be that of the velocity of light and the approach to that velocity, an exponential. Can the theory then explain cosmic gravitation? If so, there MUST ALWAYS be a magnetic effect associated with it. The name “glowing magnetism” implies that Schappeller considered this to be of prime importance. In fact, he maintained that the magnetic field produced by a glowing core WAS DIFFERENT from the familiar type of field in that it was a dynamic field, NOT STATIC. This is CONSISTENT; for an energy SOURCE with INDEFINITE energy could produce a CONTINUALLY EXPANDING flux. Such a DYNAMIC FLUX would be capable of INDUCING A DIRECT CURRENT in conductors. As a secondary effect, the currents would produce a static magnetic field of the usual type. A cord of a cosmic body then would produce DYNOMAGNETISM which would be ABSORBED BY MATTER to PRODUCE a MAGNETIC FIELD. This field would HAVE TO BE a function of the gravity if the theory is any good. As it happens, a reference to related work can be found, Professor P.M.S. Brackett, quoting from the works of Schuster, Sutherland and H.A. Wilson, showed that the magnetic moment P and angular momentum U of the earth and sun are related by the equation:
P = B G1/2 U where P =1 — — c c is the velocity of light G the universal gravitation constant
The relationship holds for Bohr magnetrons, and support for it appears in DeBroglie’s equations for mass waves. It is interesting to note that the formula also includes rotational magnetic field and gravity. Angular momentum is known to be related to gyroscopic restoring couples. Although gyroscopic action can be dealt with mathematically, no physical explanation exists for it. In view of the fact that a vector is required along the axis of rotation, might this not suggest that ROTATING MATTER GENERATES A FIELD ALONG THIS AXIS? As yet, it can only be postulated that the field couples the gyro in a fixed orientation in the space fabric. This direction sensitivity SUGGESTS isotropic qualities of the space fabric. Lodge imagined that this might be so. Magnetism at one time was regarded as separate from electricity until the electromagnetic effect was discovered. Then the problem was : “Is electricity a form of magnetism or is magnetism a form of electricity?” Einstein showed, however, that magnetism was a relativistic effect due to the movement of charge, thereby identifying magnetism as being a form of electricity. From thence sprung the concept of electron spin which fit a good theory to explain permanent magnetism. Much work is being done on spin resonance which further supports the theory. However, the discovery of magnetic monopoles indicates the possible existence of magnetism without charge and that magnetic lines of force need not be continuous. This raises questions as to the exactness of the Theory of Relativity and Electromagnetic theory in their present form. Schappeller regarded magnetism as more fundamental than electric current, and that current WAS FLOWING MAGNETISM in the conductor. The field of influence surrounding a wire was an externalization of the flux within the wire. The field, therefore, must be regarded as flowing parallel to the “current” in the conductor. The mathematical treatment of such a configuartion leads to the same practical results as the conventional idea of magnetic flux as being perpendicular to the current flow. The actual nature of current and magnetism, being one and the same, may be visualized as large scale flux interspaced between the microvorticies and therefore will appear as a form of energy potential. Conventional magnetic fields may be regarded as a form of potential energy. If we accept that magnetism is more fundamental, then a consistent explanation must be found for static potential, induced E.M.F. and electrochemical potential. A conductor forced through a magnetic field interacts with the macroflux of the ether ahead of it and ABSORBS the flux in a direction depending on the direction of the macroflux. This constitutes the current in the conductor. The flowing magnetism in the conductor RECONSTITUTES the macroflux behind it, the energy being derived from that which forces the conduction. If the conductor is open circuit, an E.M.F. is set up. This is like electrostatic potential, in that it is static magnetism, the polarity depending on an excess of ether at the point of higher potential compared with that at lower potential. Since the ether tends towards uniformity, then an ether flow will occur under suitable conditions to relieve the strain. This constitutes flowing magnetism WHICH IS CURRENT. The flow in the conductor affects the surrounding ether, giving up some energy to it, creating macrovortices, which is a magnetic field. An electrochemical E.M.F. is an expression of the energy available from an exothermic reaction but in a potential form. When current flows, the reaction takes place and the potential as a static form of magnetism in the same way that static electricity could be regarded as immobile magnetism. Matter particles being an ether precipitate cause permanent density irregularities in the ether. Chemical bonding or particle bonding lowers the stressed condtion of the ether releasing the retained ether, or static magnetism, as some form of ether disturbance. This could be ether waves (radiation), macrovortices (magnetic field) or flowing magnetism (current), which are all forms of energy. Looking back over the theory, it is seen that in glowing magnetism the space fabric IS DESTROYED as microvorticies and the resultant residual flux appears as large scale flow patterns in magnetic fields or macrovortices. If this primary magnetism reaches high values, the flux INTERFERES with the surrounding space fabric to PRODUCE matter particles, so being partially re- absorbed. Radiation can only be produced by matter particles, so that once matter has formed, ENERGY MAY LEAVE the creation field AS RADIATION from the particles which are stimulated by the magnetism. The primary magnetic field of the Schappeller glowing core is different in a very fundamental way from the usual type of field. In a perfect conductor, if the E.M.F. is maintained, the current increases and hence the magnetic field. That is, as long as energy is supplied to the system THE FIELDS EXPAND. In a resistance, the energy is dissipated as heat and the field is constant. In the Schappeller primary field, the flux is continually supplied as the energy is created, and therefore the field continually expands. This is dynomagnetism and an ordinary magnetometer is insensitive to the field. A conductor in the field will have an induced current and thereby produce a detectable static field. The instrument to detect a dynomagnetic field must consist of a loop conductor with a magnetometer at its center. If, as Schappeller states, the earth has glowing magnetism as its core, then it should produce dynomagnetism. Most of this would be absorbed in the material of the planet and produce the static field. If any of the dynomagnetic field did penetrate the surface, it would be difficult to detect against the background of atmospheric disturbance and static field. In his early experiments, Reich (Wilhelm Reich, discoverer of Orgone energy) did detect and accumulate energy from the earth which WAS OTHER than natural radiation. A core of glowing magnetism would be and would have been IN THE PROCESS of producing matter. The earth would have been EXPANDING FROM the center since it first formed. This was the best explanation for “continental drift”, but a reason for the expanding earth could not be found. Geographers would welcome the idea, for the land masses have been shown to fit NEATLY TOGETHER on a sphere of about HALF THE SIZE of the earth. The creation fields or glowing magnetic cores at the center of cosmic bodies MUST SOMEHOW ORIGINATE. Schappeller’s argument as to the origin is more difficult to follow, because of terminology, than the rest of the theory. It seems, however, that when a sun becomes large enough to form a crust, the very process of doing so causes a focusing of the various fields which starts up a new flowing core making the center of the new sun. The old sun has its supply of ether cut down and the glowing core is subdued BUT NOT SNUFFED OUT. It becomes a planet of the new sun with an apparent reduced mass due to the drop of gravity and reduced size as it initially cools and contracts. The core of the planet is not yet finished, for it continues until the crust becomes very thick and FINALLY CUTS OFF the ether supply. Then the core does die and the planet loses its gravity. Only molecular forces remain to hold the planet material together and if the internal pressure is high the planet can explode. This clashed with the conventional ideas, but thought out in detail equally explains observation. It does go one better in that it adequately explains some facts not covered by the conventional theory, the asteroids, for example. Other than providing a fundamental explanation for the organized universe, Schappeller went as far as to design a device using and converting the fundamental substance into useful energy. It was designed to produce a glowing magnetic core in a vacuum which is then self-sustaining.
CONSTRUCTION DETAIL OF THE SCHAPPELLER SPHERE Basically it consists of a pair of coils wound on to a hollow ceramic form, shaped spherically and contained in an iron sphere. The coils are of copper tubing packed with a permanent electret material. This constitutes the dynomagnetic generator. To convert the energy into mechanical energy, a rotor is used, also made from copper tube packed with electret. The sphere functions only after the electret material is polarized. Because of the terminology in the Schappeller theory, it is naturally difficult to follow, that is, apart from the strangeness of the concepts. After several readings, one might conclude that “glowing magnetism” or ether precipitation, starts if the electric and/or the magnetic fields reach enormous values at a given point. It seems that this is the function of the stator device outlined above. The arrangement of the fields must be such that A REDUCTION IN THE DENSITY of the ether occurs which continues under its OWN INERTIA. The resultant compression then causes the production of energy which appears as (radiaton and) magnetism. By this process it would seem that an oscillatory state is set up. This may be so and the FREQUENCY RELATED to the size of the glowing core. One might expect some sort of longitudinal ether wave to be set up which would be entirely different to the transverse waves of electromagnetic radiation. The wave would cause variations in the ether density which would mean that matter would tend to occupy regions of maximum density in the wave and that the velocity of light would vary slightly between maxima and minima. In the case of the earth, the Van Allen belts could be taken as an indication of such gravity waves, and for the sun, the obvious fact that the planets occupy orbits that are HARMONICALLY RELATED. In both cases a standing wave is indicated. (see Pawlicki in “How to Build a Flying Saucer”) It might be worthwhile research to look for variations in the velocity of light in the Van Allen belts. Lodge deals with the problem of inertia by attributing the property to the ether itself. Matter, he claims, has no inertia as such, but acquires an induction as it moves through the space fabric, or more correctly, the space fabric moves THROUGH IT. The induction constitutes a change of energy seen as kinetic energy, and the state of motion lasts as long as the induction lasts. The theory also asserts that the ether itself has an enormous inertia and is IN A PREFERRED STATE OF REST. Small movements give rise to big effects, for example as in gravitational fields. However, cellular vortices which circulate at the speed of light might be extended to larger fluxes. The conclusion to this is that matter accelerated by force fields cannot exceed the speed of light and the approach to it would be exponential.
APPLICATION OF THEORY The ultra high potential produced by the Searl ring generator being so much greater than the ionization potential of the air, causes ionic breakdown of the air at some feet from the craft skin, as this acts as the positive electrode. The negative side of the generator is connected to the periphery of the disc, and isolated from the skin. The field at the negative terminal is therefore very much greater and the air is ionized at a greater distance at the rim. The air at the positive terminal loses electrons and the resulting ions are repelled from the terminal with high acceleration. The electrons pass through the generator, constituting the current in the generator, and provide the charge at the negative terminal to produce negative ions in the air near the rim. The craft therefore is enveloped in a vacuum. In ordinary high voltage generators the maximum potential is limited by the ionized breakdown of the air. Flashover occurs and accumulated energy is lost. The geometry and the arrangement of the field coils in the Searl generator is such that flashover is eliminated until the thing is in a vacuum and then is impossible. Energy is required to build up the potential and INITIALLY has to be supplied from an external source. As the vacuum layer increases about the craft, less energy is required to maintain the potnetial. The generator soon reaches a potential when the Searl Effect takes place and the device produces its own energy along with the levity phenomenon. On the basis of the theory, at this potential the stress on the space fabric cannot be equalized by flowing magnetism (current flow) through the air and craft AS A CIRCUIT. The space fabric breaks BREAKS DOWN to provide the magnetism to relieve the stress, but the energy by-product is absorbed by the generator which REINFORCES the field. The generator then must set up an ether flux along the lines of the electric field as is conventionally represented. The direction of ether flow is, however, IN at the positive and OUT at the negative. This is deduced from the Schappeller theory. The generator and craft therefore produce their own gravitation type field. The net effect of the craft field plus the earth’s gravitation field gives rise to a condition where the ether density below the craft is higher than that above it. The craft therefore is strongly repelled from the planet. And to stop it from shooting off into space the field of the craft must be intentionally PERTURBED. In the drive condition, the field is as shown in Figure 4 and the craft is shot out of the earth’s field like a wet orange seed from between the fingers. The acceleration is enormous, but since all matter associated with the craft is linked with the field no distortion of any part, including passengers if any, occurs. The limit to the speed is unknown but since the craft has NO INERTIA there is possibly no limit. It would be safe to say, however, that the limit is below the speed of light. Above this speed too much is unknown to take the risk, but since the craft carries its own space with it the theory of relativity is inapplicable. In fact, the craft does not travel THROUGH space but PAST it. It can be seen from the gravity field diagram that a NEUTRAL ZONE appears BELOW the craft as well as the neutral ring ABOVE, when the levity drive is on. If matter becomes located in the zone, then it is HELD THERE. In consequence, the Searl craft so far made have left their mark on the country-side in the form of large, neat holes when they suddenly take off. The chunk of earth is taken up with it. (called “matter snatch”) The gravity field within the body of the craft is such that the center is up and the rim down. If the generator is allowed to “run up”, because the polarity is opposite to that of the Schappeller machine, the field is EXPANSIVE and PULLS the craft apart. Prior to this, glowing magnetism could start, characterized by an orange- yellow glow, but could not become self-sustaining, being expansive. The Searl generator runs at low speeds and is unlikely to fly apart by centrifugal force. Apart from this, the side effect electromagnetic forces help to keep it together. As with other gravity fields, the flux favors passage through matter and so the field within the craft MAY BE TAILORED by appropriately distributing the mass in the craft. This is of particular convenience in manned craft where the comfort of crew may be improved by making the cabin field about one half G. The external field, when the craft is travelling in free space, would resemble that of the combined earth and craft, since it would be moving RELATIVE to a stationary ether. Collision between the craft and large objects in space is very unlikely except in direct line of flight when such could be seen and the craft rapidly turned. The field is such that the objects are diverted past the craft, or it past the object. If the object qualifies as a planet or moon having its own gravity due to a glowing core, then the craft oriented by the interaction of fields is strongly REPELLED AWAY unless measures are taken to alter the field of the craft. Small objects such as meteorites are pushed out by the combined electric and dynomagnetic fields. An object entering such a powerful static field is AT FIRST ATTRACTED, then ionized and then strongly repelled. The dynomagnetic field induces a magnostatic (ordinary magnetic) field in objects which will INTERACT with the craft magnostatic field AT CONSIDERABLE DISTANCE (miles) and REPEL IT. It should be pointed out that only a very small amount of space fabric passes through the craft and an even smaller amount is converted for energy. However, as previously mentioned, SMALL changes in the ether LEAD to large physical effects. Even in deep space the craft has an electronic flow through the generator which is continuous along the electric field outside the craft. Electrons are picked up and some leave the rim at relativistic velocities. These do not contribute to the drive. So the craft also carries its own negative space charge. In an atmosphere the electronic flow is much greater, and the generator current much higher. The craft therefore functions a lot better and has greater flexibility in space. In air, the re-combination of ions gives rise to pink to blue glow around the craft and in damp conditions the ions in the air can give rise to condensation. This effect coupled with the output of electrical energy COULD WELL PRECIPITATE THUNDERSTORMS. The only hazard so far observed is that if the craft hovers for too long near the ground the soil becomes burnt due to the electric currents in it which build up heat. Also the nervous systems of animals are interferred with by ionizing discharge if they get too near.
This article was sourced from : https://merlib.org/mirror/keelynet/gravity/searle3
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