**Nature of Space, Matter, Light, and Time **

**by Justin Swanhart**

This thought experiment is based on the variable speed of light, or VSL, and it gives a simple mechanism (particle spin) for that VSL. It also uses spin to explain mass and mass can be computed, no particle like the Higgs is necessary. This mechanism can predict the galaxy rotation curve, explain what happens in black holes, provide a theory for why space appears to be in accelerating expansion.

*Why special relativity flawed:*

- Gravity has no distance limit,
- The reference frame described by the SR for a non-rotating frame can only exist in a single particle universe
- In a single particle universe there is no gravity (two particles would interact weakly even if they were at opposite sides of the galaxy, so there must be only one particle)
- matter at rest has rest mass
- Einstein said that in the reference frame the particle was moving in a straight line
- If the special relativity reference frame is a one particle in the universe. then the particle should not move. There is no energy to add to it to move it.
- Einstein used rest mass for an object he described to be in motion, making SR incorrect with respect to Newton’s laws of motion. Only an object at rest has rest mass.
- You can not solve for C in E=MC^2. If you try, then the square root of C^2 is not C, which is wrong mathematically. Even if C is a constant, one should be able to solve for it in a working equation.

If the above stipulations are true, then the motion of the object should be **spin while at rest**, not linear motion. There is no outside force to move the particle in a line. If you added force, it would move and never stop. Mass and gravity are fictitious. Gravity is (centripetal force) that arises from spin of photons, electrons and protons. Mass is a function of spin rate (proof below)

By changing C to (1/C *distance^2) and using a particle at rest, the inverse square law is incorporated, adding newton to SR (via the inverse square law) without need for GR. Because it uses the inverse square law, (1/C * distance^2) describes the force of gravity over the body. Mass and gravity are functions of spin of particles. This is why the moon is locked to Earth, it is spinning very very very slowly, but still spinning. The particles in the moon are always spinning.

With this change to SR when add another particle to the SR thought experiment you get elliptical orbits due to gravity, but both particles spin more slowly. The framework around SR continues to work, the only modification to the derivative of SR.

**Special relativity with gravity via inverse square law:
E=M(1/C * distance^2)^2**

**Stipulations:**

- The frame described by Einstein for SR is really a one particle universe with a particle at rest.
- A photon is simultaneously a wave and particle
- All photons have spin.
- The wave associated with a photon is the wave created by the compression of aether. It is a doppler affect.
- The mass associated with the photon is from the spin of the photon.
- Stipulate that a photon spins at a rate of the energy of rest mass of the photon (proof below)
- Stipulate that the energy of a photon at rest is equal to the energy of the mass of the photon.
- Stipulate that a reference frame without gravity has only one photon in the universe
- Gravity is the equal opposite reaction to the aether compression. It is spread evenly over the surface of the photon and reduces by the inverse square of the distance from the photon.

**Energy of spin (E)=Rest Mass(1/C * distance^2)^2**

If the energy of the photon = 1 and the mass of the photon = 1 and the distance is the radius of a photon(1):

E=1(1/C * 1^2)=1

**Solving for C**=1 (the speed of the spin of the photon, which is the energy of the mass) **M=E the same conclusion of special relativity, but you can solve for C ****Gravity=1** The force of gravity is equal over the surface of the proton, highest at it’s surface and decreasing inversely by the square of the distance

This updated special relativity follows all of Newton’s laws, including the laws of motion and the law of gravity without using GR.

## What is space?

I propose that space is an *aether *that is all around us which behaves similarly , but instead of spacetime, there is aether (or just space if you prefer). I’ll explain how the aether creates time, and why time is literally different everywhere, and no two clocks run exactly the same.

**The properties of aether**

- Aether is a non-material motionless substrate that creates and underpins the space around us.
- Aether is compressed by mass and energy.
- Aether compression (and the speed of light) is a function of mass and energy.: E=M(1/C * distance^2)^2
- When aether compresses. The measure of compression is called aether compression level. It is a measure of the refraction of aether.
- The compression is proportional to the total energy of the object.
- The aether compression level decreases from the center of the object by the inverse square law.
- The compression caused by two bodies is additive, the aether compresses further and energy is used for the compression.
- Aether may not be created, nor destroyed.
- As the compression level increases, the energy needed to compress it further increases.
- All space contains aether, even the vacuum between galaxies.
- A volume of space contains at a minimum an amount of energy proportional to the amount of compression in the aether underpinning that space.
- Aether is motionless (it is stationary, it does not rotate, and is not dragged by matter, and compression does not imply movement)
- All matter down to the smallest subatomic particles compress aether proportional to their energy. There is aether underpinning even the space inside an atom.
- Aether compression can be visualized like a bowling ball on memory foam, the ball compresses the foam, but it springs back when the ball is removed.
- Another analogy is dissolved corn starch, which becomes more firm as you add energy, but the aether can not be modelled as a liquid.
- The speed of light is inversely proportional to the aether density.
- Mass is caused by space becoming so full of aether compression that it turns solid. the subatomic particles compress a lot of aether. So there is no need for higgs boson for mass.

## Particles

- The only fundamental particle is the photon.
- electrons are are made of photons. The photons orbit around each other clockwise.
- protons are made of photons. The photons orbit each other counter-clockwise and there are more photons than in an electron.
- A neutron is an electron orbiting a proton, the charges cancel but the energy remains. The extra mass of the neutron is accounted for by aether compression and thus spin rate of the particles. In the neutron the proton and electron are both tidal locked, eliminating the charge. The energy of the electron+neutron increases aether compression, which accounts for the mass increase in the neutron over the sum of the mass of the proton and electron.
**Mass originates from spin, not the Higgs (see proof below)**- Planck length is the diameter of a photon.

## Why is there a speed of light?

Everybody knows that there is a speed of light. It is, obviously, the speed at which light travels (in a vacuum), and (not so obviously) the maximum speed that anything can go. As a photon travels through aether, aether is compressed in front of the photon and expands behind it, forming what we observe as the waves associated with light. Creating the wave requires energy, but there is no net energy loss because aether compresses in front and expands behind. The compression level of the aether the photon is travelling through determines the amount of energy needed. Energy is always used to compress space further. Thus the speed of the photon is dependent on the aether compression level, it travels only so fast as the energy it has after the aether has borrowed energy for compression. **T****he speed of light is not a constant**. The speed of light is metered by the aether compression level, and light always travels the same speed in a volume of space underpinned by aether of a given compression level. Thus the speed of light appears relatively constant.

Why can’t you travel faster than the speed of light? Well, because aether can’t be compressed any faster than light can compresses it. As you speed up and approach the speed of light, you have to dedicate more and more energy to the compression of aether until it can’t be compressed any more quickly, no matter how much energy you add. You can only go as fast as the aether compression level allows you to go. Because of the concept of aether compression level, light travelling between galaxies goes very much faster than light in the solar system.

## Why does light curve?

In general relativity space is curved by energy, and the curvature bends light. I propose that their is no gravitational field, and that gravity does not affect light. Instead the aether compression is used to explain why light curves. The aether the light is moving in is always a certain compression level. Aether compression is essentially a refraction index. Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in the transmission medium. Light moving from an area of lower to higher aether compression, or vice versa, is experiencing a change in the transmission medium. This results in refraction. This refraction explains gravitational lensing, though in truth gravity has nothing to do with it. A black hole or other massive object bends light around it due to compressing the aether around it, not by gravity bending the light. Since all matter is made of particles that are waves, matter is affected by the same phenomena, which leads to orbits.

For light, the wavelength is determined by aether compression and the frequency by the frequency of the emission of photons. This is why aether compression refracts light by changing the wavelength but not the frequency.

## Special relativity and the aether

**Mass/energy equivalence and the source of mass**

## Without a field, what is gravity, what causes orbits?

All bodies when occupying space compress the aether inside that space. Bodies compress aether proportional to their total energy. The aether compression level extends outward from the object and decreases inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the center of the object. The more massive (and therefore more energetic) the object, the more aether is compressed, which in turn leads to stronger “gravitation” associated with the object. I say “gravitation” because when two objects are near each other, the compression of the aether is additive, which uses energy. In many cases this will cause deflection of an object, and other times, there will not be enough energy remaining for the lesser energetic body to escape but enough remains so that it can rotate the more energetic body (through refraction), always trying to pull away but never having enough energy to do so. In other cases there is not enough energy and the less energetic body falls in to the more massive one. Since two pieces of matter can’t occupy the same space, the lesser energetic object lands on the more energetic object.

**Light “orbits” even without gravity:**

It can be shown that light moves in a circle without gravity if you imagine a universe containing only one particle of light. Since there is only one particle, it can be assigned arbitrary energy and mass, as long as energy = mass.

D=(M/E)^.5

C=(1/D) * distance^2

If the energy of the photon = 1 and the mass of the photon = 1

D=(1/1)^.5 = 1

C=(1/1) * distance^2 = 1 * 1; (solving for distance yields one, the radius of the circle)

C=1 the energy of the photon and the photon always moves at the energy of the photon

D=1 so the particle undergoes “constant refraction” which creates a orbit around nothing

## What is time?

Time as a physical construct does not exist. Time is merely observational, that is, it is simply the construct that a mind uses to understand how entropy unfolds. The maximum speed at which entropy can take place (ie, the** speed of entropy**) is governed by the compression of the aether in which that entropy takes place. This is because entropy may not proceed faster than the speed of light, and the speed of light is governed by the aether compression level. Time can only be quantified by observing changes, and that observation can’t happen faster than the speed of light. Entropy does not proceed in a backwards direction due to the laws of thermodynamics, which naturally leads to the direction of the arrow of time. The best way to measure “time” is through radioactive decay, which is affected by the speed of entropy.

# Predictions

**What happens inside a black hole?**

As the speed of light varies based on the aether compression, as compression increases, time slows because entropy slows. Near the center of a black hole, the compression level grows exponentially. It becomes so high that anything falling toward the core slows down perpetually as more and more energy is sucked away to attempt to compress the aether in front of it. Eventually entropy (which is governed by the speed of light) becomes so slow that time effectively stops with respect to clocks outside the horizon. It is a kind of zenu’s paradox – the closer you get the higher the compression, you grow progressively slower and you’ll never reach the center.

The truth is, there actually is no dark matter. The need for it arises out of the galaxy rotation paradox, which is the observation that the outside of a spiral galaxy appears to move too fast to be held together by the ovservable mass within it. Since the galaxies should apparently fly apart without extra mass, most scientists conclude that there must be some invisible matter holding things together, thus dark matter was hypothesized. There is no need for dark matter if the galaxy rotation can be explained in another way.

I propose that the reason for which we observe faster than expected rotation on the outside of a spiral galaxy, and slower than expected rotation on the inside, is because the aether compression level on the outside is much lower than the aether compression level on the inside. The speed of light is variable based upon the aether compression level of the aether it is travelling in, so time essentially runs faster on the outside of the galaxy than in the inside, leading to the apparent paradox. The motion of the matter appears to violate classical physics without adding mass, but in reality does not.

## Why does QM observe spontaneous particle creation/annihilation?

A vacuum is full of aether, not really empty, and the aether itself has a given aether compression level, and thus a given energy level. Occasionally, spontaneously, the energy arranges itself in a way to create a short lived pair of particles.

## If there is no dark matter, what about dark energy?

I propose that the universe is likely thinning out at the edges. As the edge thins out the aether becomes less dense. Since the speed of light increases as aether compression level decreases, it appears that the edge is moving away and accelerating, but instead the speed of light is increasing and the universe does not need to be expanding. Since time slows down as compression is added it appears to be expanding faster than can be explained, dark energy was invented to power the non-existent expansion. The perceived acceleration of the expansion of the universe is just that, perceived and not true. It is the same paradox that led to the idea of dark matter.

## Gravity waves

Gravity waves do not exist. Interactions between differently compressed aether are additive. Two black holes rotating lose energy through increasing aether compression, not through gravity waves.

## **Frame-dragging**

The faster a body rotates the more energy it has. Aether is compressed relative to the total mass-equivalent energy of the rotating body. This means it will increase aether compression, affecting the orbit of the of nearby bodies.

## Why is time travel impossible

Since time itself doesn’t exist, it is impossible to travel in time. Often time travel is proposed by using exotic energy to ‘bend space’ . This is impossible. As energy is added to a volume of aether, it compresses and time slows down. Aether doesn’t bend, it just compresses with response to energy. You would effectively encase yourself in a volume of aether where time has effectively stopped. To put the final nail in the coffin, time can only be measured through entropy. Entropy does not reverse. You can not travel back in time because you would have to unwind entropy to get there.

## Gravitational time dilation

Since gravity isn’t a true force, but a reaction to the compression of aether, gravitational time dilation is a misnomer, like gravitational lensing. As the distance increases from an energetic body, the aether compression level decreases by the inverse square law. This results in an increase in the speed of time, as the speed of light increases as the distance increases. This is demonstrated in GPS satellites today, where clocks run faster than their counterparts on earth, not due to gravity, but because the speed of light is faster there because the aether is less compressed.

**Pretty good evidence that speed of light is variable:**

- http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn6092-speed-of-light-may-have-changed-recently.html
- http://phys.org/news/2013-03-ephemeral-vacuum-particles-speed-of-light-fluctuations.html
- http://www.livescience.com/29111-speed-of-light-not-constant.html

# Aether compression and motion

An object is always in motion relative to every other object An object is never at absolute rest, a person on earth is moving around the sun, which is moving around the galaxy, which is moving around the universe.

Netwton said objects travel in a straight line unless acted on by an outside force. There are no true straight lines. An object never travels in a straight line because energy is transferred to aether by aether compression. The compression borrows energy, decompression returns it, the compression level causes refraction.

**A lone particle in the universe moves in a circle without gravity:**

If there is one photon in entire universe then we can assign energy of photon as 1, and mass of photon is as 1 (wave/particle duality means both are true at once)

D=(M/E)^.5

C=(1/D) * distance^2

D=(1/1)^.5

C = (1/D) * distance^2

D=1, the compression level is constant, hence constant refraction.

C=1,The energy of the photon, so light always moves at light speed.

solving for distance yields 1 (the radius of the circle)

If you add an observer to the universe (a second photon) the speed of light changes and the photons orbit each other in ellipses. This explains why adding an observer (like a sensor) changes the outcome of the dual slit experiment. Observing the photon changes it.

# How matter is created (what is mass?)

**Mass is a measure of the energy stored in the aether around a particle**

As aether compression increases the more and more energy is used to compress the aether further. The energy stored in the aether is the quantity of energy we associate with mass.

Total energy of the particle is the energy of motion plus the energy stored around the particle. All particles are particles and waves. Mass is considered “mass energy” and used labeled as M in the following pages.

**What is energy:
**Energy (E) is a measure of kinetic energy. This is the energy of motion which allows particles to move. A particle always has at least it’s mass in energy, any extra energy beyond that is used for motion. It is impossible for aether compression to borrow energy from mass energy.

Formula: D=(MassEnergy/KinecticEnergy)^.5, C=(1/D) * distance^2

When an object is “at rest” MassEnergy=KinecticEnergy, when KinecticEnergy is added, the object can move.

**There are probably only three fundamental particles:
**There are electron, protons and photons:

A

**neutron**has a little more mass than a

**photon**+

**election**, because electrons

**rotate**protons to form neutrons. The extra mass is aether compression increase through additive aether compression.

Protons and electrons are the only particles which forms matter. In a neutron the charges cancel but the energy remains. Photons are a particle too.

In a particle accelerator, the energy released by the collision causes aether to compress. The increases in compression increases apparent mass and new matter falls out. Energy appears to be mass, but there is only energy. When two objects collide, additive aether compression accounts for the angle of deflection .

The laws of thermodynamics describe how energy spreads over space over time. The **speed of entropy** is controlled by the aether compression level. Entropy can never stop, thus things are always in motion. Entropy can’t stop, everything is always in motion.

**ARTICLE SOURCE: https://web.archive.org/web/20180823135202/http://differentphysics.com/category/uncategorized/ **

Is there dark matter?