In February, 2004 Mark L. LeClair, CEO & Founder of NanoSpire, Inc., discovered a crystalline form of water, while investigating the machining potential of the cavitation jets under a Maine Technology Institute (MTI) seed grant SG1424, Cavitation Machining Prototype Development  and MTI seed grant SG1803, Cavitation Machining Product Development. The LeClair Effect behaviour was again observed by Mark LeClair, Principal Investigator and Serge Lebid (Co-founder & NanoSpire EVP), co-investigator, on a grant from 2005-2006, Feasibility Study for Cavitation Nanofabrication Technology for Oxygen Sensor Manufacturing. Other co-investigators included faculty at Albany Nanotech, and members of Deloitte & Touche, Cientifica and Sencer, Inc.. The grant was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), (Agreement #8250).

Produced by the enormous pressure of cavitation bubble collapse, many of the jets were seen to have facets and to possess tremendous electrostatic charge. The crystal has an equilateral triangular cylinder subunit that most commonly forms jet hexagon cross-sections. The crystal is a series of repeating O-H bonds along its axis and is bound by hydrogen bonds in the cross-sectional plane, a type of hybrid bonded crystal known as a van der Waals crystal. The flexibility of the hydrogen bonds allowed the crystal to assume a rich variety of shapes, most commonly resembling a bacteriophage, with a large hexagonal faceted head and narrow whip tail. The crystal tail can split into a fractal fan on impact. The leading face closest to the bow shock and the sides of the crystal are positively charged and the tail is negative, allowing the crystal to form observed closed loops. The positive charge of the leading face and sides was revealed by impacting the crystal into litmus paper. This created bright red hexagonal impacts in green litmus paper, and purple hexagons in orange litmus paper, both indicators of zero pH and large positive charge concentration on the crystal. The MTI grant research showed that the crystallized jets would often carve long trenches in materials guided by their electrostatic charge and removed far more material than could be accounted for.

The crystal, moving at supersonic and greater speeds, is surrounding by a bow shock like a fighter plane. The positively charged crystal is attracted to its own negatively charged bow shock by the Casimir Force and coherently extracts zero point energy on a large scale. The crystal then accelerates to what appears to be relativistic speeds in very short distances. This is implied by the heavy element transmutation observed bull-dozed in front of the bow shock, the only way these heavy elements are known to form in nature is either from stellar core collapse or supernova explosions, both occurring at relativistic speeds. The transmutation process observed in all the experiments closely matched the behaviour of stellar fusion nucleosynthesis and both type I & II supernova shock nucleosynthesis. This discovery will have a major effect on stellar evolution astronomy, allowing stellar nucleosynthesis, stellar core collapse nucleosynthesis and supernova nucleosynthesis to all be studied on a desktop, with varying compositions. The phenomenon of the water crystal propelled by the attraction to its bow shock has been named the LeClair Effect. Based on the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principal, the LeClair Effect theory and the profound discoveries based on it pose a serious quantum theory challenge to the classical understanding of Newton’s Laws of Motion and the 1st and 2nd laws of thermodynamics.

In March, 2007 Mark LeClair built and tested the first cavitation reactor powered by the LeClair Effect, based on our patented technology. More research was done from 2007 to 2009 with a variety of other reactor designs that led to a series of key experiments performed from July – August, 2009 under a grant, titled: Utilization of Crystallized Cavitation Reentrant Jets for Zero Point Energy Production. The goal was to produce a next stage hot water heater reactor based on the LeClair Effect and was awarded by a potential investor focused on promoting cold fusion. Mark LeClair and Serge Lebid discovered that the scaled-up LeClair Effect reactor was triggering intense fusion, fission and large scale elemental transmutation using ordinary water. The 1.25” ID by 12” long reactor produced 2.9 kW of hot water using only 840 watts of input, a coefficient of performance (COP) of 3.4 times more energy out than in. The water temperature was raised an average of 18 degrees C (32 degrees F) average passing through the reactor with 28 degree C (50 degrees F) temperature spikes observed. A total of twelve experiments were performed, with 100% repeatability of the high levels seen in excess heat and transmutation in the various configurations.

Evidence of trenches generated by the passage of the water crystal propelled by the LeClair Effect could be seen all over the reactor cores. The positive crystal followed the induced negative charge on the rows and columns of holes of the coiled perforated aluminium plate that formed the reactor cores, with trenches usually going tangent to tangent along the holes, orbiting the holes and also the sheet edges, all guided by electrostatic attraction. Many of the holes were progressively filled with transmuted material, transmuted material also formed on the sheet surface. A uniform width melted heat affected zone (HAZ) along each side of the crystal trenches could be seen. The trench was disrupted at many points along its length by millimeter-sized pits from the apparent triggering of small supernova explosions, which also contained macroscopic amounts of multicolored transmuted elements.

The large scale transmutation of elements was verified by three separate independent scanning electron microscope elemental analysis (SEM-EDAX) of the transmuted material, including University of Maine, Orono Laboratory for Surface Science & Technology (SEM-EDAX & XPS under contract), by courtesy of Media Sciences, located in Oakland, New Jersey and by courtesy of well-known Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) researcher and advocate Dr. Edmund Storms, formerly of Los Alamos in New Mexico. The University of Maine, Orono Chemistry Department also performed an analysis known as XPS that measured nucleus binding energy, confirming that the glassy coating seen covering much of the reactor cores was diamond. The SEM analyses collectively detected a total of 34 elements ranging from carbon to polonium. The same samples analyzed by SEM-EDAX and XPS were also analyzed with laser ablative inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) by Shiva Technologies (an operating unit of Evans Analytical Group) located in Syracuse, NY. The more sensitive LA-ICP-MS detected a total of 78 elements ranging from lithium to californium and 108 isotopes ranging from 7Li to 249Cf, a standard detection set that does not include all the possible isotopes, but including all the stable isotopes and many short and long lived radioactive isotopes. Together, the five analyses showed that nearly every element in the periodic table was detected in every type of transmuted particle in different distributions, up to the limit of the LA-ICP-MS detection range, californium.

The transmuted elements were produced as chips up to one millimeter in size, in gram amounts and clouded the clear polystyrene dishes they were placed in with rings of nuclear tracks from the radioactive decay of short-lived isotopes. The composition of the transmuted material followed the same patterns as supernova nucleosynthesis, mostly carbon and oxygen (like white dwarves) with decreasing amounts of the heavier elements. The elemental distribution followed the saw-tooth shaped astronomer’s odd-even rule, with even numbered elements occurring in significantly greater amounts than the odd elements because of the dominance of alpha particle fusion. The isotope ratios matched those seen in both stellar and supernova nucleosynthesis. Many radioactive extinct and non-naturally occurring elements were detected, including isotopes of the transuranic elements. Most importantly, all the rare earths, precious metals and many other key elements were produced in high concentrations, greater than typically seen in most naturally occurring ores.

The radiation emitted by the reactor left nuclear tracks, burned the hole pattern of the core into the clear PVC core enclosure, activated high neutron absorption cross-section 39Cl (56 minute half-life) in the chlorine of the PVC core enclosure and transmuted the water in the reactor into nearly all the other elements. The experiment also accidentally resulted in acute radiation sickness beginning the day after the August 25, 2009 experiments for both investigators Mark LeClair and Sergio Lebid and lasted for more than a year.

The discovery of the zero point energy based LeClair Effect triggering fusion, fission and large scale elemental transmutation by Mark LeClair and Serge Lebid was historic and could solve both the energy and natural resource crisises. The LeClair Effect explains excess heat and transmutation observed in electrolytic cells (Pons, Fleischmann & others) and by hydrodynamic means such as the Griggs pump or sonofusion (ultrasound), cavitation is present in all of them. The current technology could easily provide large scale production of hot water for residential, commercial and industrial hot water at a capital and operating cost far lower than fossil fuel, nuclear and other LENR-based technologies. NanoSpire is currently seeking investors, licensees or joint venture partners to accelerate commercialization and development of the technology.


LeClair Abstract WC2012